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In The Winery

In The Winery


In modern mechanized wine production, the grapes are normally crushed and stemmed at the same time by a crusher-stemmer, usually consisting of a perforated cylinder containing paddles revolving at 600 to 1200 revolutions per minute. The grapes are crushed and fall through the cylinder perforations; most of the stems pass out the end of the cylinder. A roller-crusher may also be used. 


The process of alcoholic fermentation requires careful control for the production of high quality wines. Requirements include suppression of the growth of undesirable microorganisms, presence of adequate numbers of desirable yeast, proper nutrition for yeast growth, temperature control for management of the cap of skins floating in red musts. Temperature control during alcoholic fermentation is necessary to (1) facilitate yeast growth, (2) extract flavors and colors from the skins, (3) permit accumulation of desirable by-products, and (4) prevent undue rise in temperature, killing the yeast cells.
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